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Middleton History
Glossary

Glossary of Unusual or Obscure Terms ...

Attainted
a person condemned for a serious crime, such as treason , could be declared "Attainted", i.e. stained by the court, depriving them of all property rights including the willing of the property to other members of the family.

Bordar
a manorial tenant of lower status than a vllein, holding a small amount of land from the lord, bound to it, and paying rent in money or kind.

Bovate
being one-eighth of a caracute - approximately 15 acres.

Chief Lord
a lord who holds his land direct from the king.

Caracute
is a unit of land equal to approximately 120 acres.

Escheated
seizure of land from a tenant by his feudal superior because of a lack of a heir (or as a result of a serious offence such as treason).

Feoda Militum [Knights' Fees]
were lands held of the king by barons, bishops, monasteries and lords of the manor, with the duty of supplying a certain number of knights, fully equipped, for the king's service.

Feodary
a manuscript which contained a list of the names of all the tenants who held land by "knights service" and the name of the land for which the service was owed.

Geld
the principal royal tax

Mark
One third of a pound - 6 shillings and 8 pence

Mesne Lord
a lord who holds his land directly from a chief lord.

Messuage
a plot of land usually containing a dwelling (some messuages were not built on).

Military Tenure
Tenants-in-chief each had to provide for the kings service: a fully armed mounted soldier to serve for 40 days each year; known as the "knights fee" or Feoda Militum.

Quit-claimed
a deed in which a person surrenders all their rights to a piece of property to another person.

Tenant-in-chief
A Tenant-in-chief held land directly from the king by military tenure.

T.R.E.
in the time of King Edward the Confessor (i.e. before 1066).

Villein
a manorial tenant, bound to the land of his lord. Held his land by the performing of labour services on the lord's land and paying rent in money or kind.

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